How Is Gas Chromatography Used In Forensic Science?

Forensic science is one of the popular subjects, which has been used widely in public services from time to time. Gas chromatography helps people to gather more evidence in an effective way, as the component is known to separate various elements in the crime scene in order to analyze from time to time.

Gas chromatography comes in various mixtures, which are known to be used based on the scene and the crime scene in an effective way. It is evident that various elements in the crime scene are separated in order to figure out the result of exact evidence from time to time. The process has been evolved to a great extent for a long time now, as it is known to provide an accurate result from time to time.

The process has a lot of uses for public services, as people are known to use the process in order to invest give various police cases in an effective way. The forensic pathology team has been known as the largest user of gas Chromatography on a regular basis, as they will have to identify various elements and molecules available at the crime scene from time to time.

Some of the uses of gas chromatography in Forensic science

Crime scene investigation – Forensics is all about finding better evidence related to crime scenes and accident scenes from time to time. It is very much necessary for people to understand different elements involved in forensic science, as it helps them to use the benefits to the maximum extent on a regular basis. There will be a variety of samples found in both accident and crime scenes on a regular basis, and it is important to investigate the scene and figure out the sensitive evidence in order to solve the case in a quick span of time.

As Gas chromatography can be used in order to investigate about blood marks and fiber samples, it is evident that a proper process can provide you a lot of information about the scene in an effective way. As most of the forensic outputs are known to provide accurate results, it is important to have a team of forensic experts in order to investigate the scene from time to time.

Conclusion

It is a known fact that gas chromatography mixture or a process has been extensively used in public services like Police, Federal investigations and so on. As the compound is known to provide better investigative methods and results, it is important for every individual to choose the forensic report in order to know the actual cause of the issue or the crime in an effective way. Gas Chromatography has been used in order to figure out various facts about the crime and an accident scene, as it can effectively provide accurate results.

Where Can I Find Forensic Clues About Internet Domain Name Registrants?

The following explains some of the terms used in Internet forensics, and suggests where relevant clues about a domain name may be hiding:

“IP Address”

Each and every computer on the Internet has a unique address – just like a telephone number or street address – which is a rather long and complicated string of numbers. It is called its “IP address” (IP stands for “Internet Protocol”). IP Addresses are hard to remember, so the Domain Name System makes using the Internet far easier for humans by allowing words in the form of a “domain name” to be used instead of the arcane, numerical IP address. So instead of typing 64.233.161.104, you can just type that IP address’ domain name, and you would then be directed to the website that you are seeking connected to that domain name.

It is possible to “geolocate” an IP address by using a variety of free services available on the Internet. Geolocation is the practice of determining the physical, real world location of a person or computer using digital information processed and collected on the Internet.

Geolocation can offer the city, ZIP code or region from which a person is or has connected to the World Wide Web by using their device’s IP Address, or that of a nearby wireless access points, such as those offered by coffeeshops or internet cafes.

Determining the country of an Internet user based on his or her IP address is relatively simple and accurate (95%-99% percent) because a country is required information when an IP range is allocated and IP registrars supply that information.

Determining the specific physical location of an IP Address down to a city or ZIP code, however, is a little more difficult and slightly less accurate because there is no official source for the information. Further, users sometimes share IP addresses and Internet service providers often base IP addresses.

Even when not accurate, though, geolocation can place users in a bordering or nearby city, which may be good enough for the investigation.

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is an internationally organized, non-profit corporation that has the ultimate responsibility for Internet Protocol address space allocation, generic (gTLD) and country code (ccTLD) Top Level Domain name system management, and root server system management functions. As a private-public partnership, ICANN is dedicated to preserving the operational stability of the Internet; to promoting healthy and lawful competition; to achieving broad representation of global Internet communities; and to developing policies to foster these goals.

“Registrant”

Registrants are individuals or entities who register unique domain names through Internet Registrars. The Registrant is required to enter a registration contract with his Registrar, which sets forth the terms under which the registration is accepted and will be maintained. The Registrant’s data is ultimately recorded in a number of locations: with the Registry, the Registrar, and, if applicable, with his webhosting provider.

“Registrar”

Domain names are registered by individual Registrants through many different companies known as Internet “Registrars.” GoDaddy, for example, is a major ICANN-accredited Registrar. There are currently approximately 430 accredited Internet Registrars. A complete listing of accredited Registrars is in the ICANN Accredited Registrar Directory. A Registrar asks individuals, or “Registrants”, various contact and technical information that makes up the official registration record. The Registrar maintains detailed records of the Registrant’s contact information and submits the information to a central directory known as the “Registry.” The Registry provides other computers on the Internet the information necessary to send the Registrant e-mail or to find the Registrant’s Website on the Internet.

“Registry”

The Registry is the authoritative, master database of all domain names registered in each Top Level Domain. The Registry operator keeps the master database and also generates the “Zone File” which allows computers to route Internet traffic to and from Top Level Domains (TLD’s) anywhere in the world. Internet users don’t interact directly with the Registry; users can register names in TLDs by using an ICANN-Accredited Registrar (see above). Two of the largest Registries are Verisign (with authority over.com and.net TLDs, among others), and the Public Interest Registry (“PIR”)(with authority over.org TLD’s).

Top Level Domain (TLD)

Top Level Domains (TLDs) are the names at the top of the DNS naming hierarchy. They appear in domain names as the string of letters following the last (rightmost) “.”, such as “net” in “http://www.example.net”. The administrator for a TLD controls what second-level names are recognized in that TLD. The administrators of the “root domain” or “Root Zone” control what TLDs are recognized by the DNS. Generally speaking, two types of TLDs exist: generic TLDs (such as.com,.net,.edu) and country code TLDs (such as.jp,.de, and.cn).

“Whois”Data

All domain name Registries operate a “Whois” server for the purpose of providing information about all the Internet domain names registered with them. In a Shared Registry System, where most information about a domain name is held by separate individual Registrars, the Registry’s Whois server provides a referral to the Registrars own Whois server, which provides more complete information about the domain name. The Whois service contains Registrant, administrative, billing and technical contact information provided by Registrars for domain name registrations.

By collecting and analyzing the Whois data, the Registry data, the Registrar data, and other bits and pieces of data about any websites associated with the domain name(s) you are interested in, a forensic investigator can often reconstruct a Registrant’s identity, location and other contact information (e-mail, etc.).

Forensic Toolkit – What’s in It?

In the world of digital forensics, the well prepared investigator needs a forensic toolkit. The tools that this person will use will help her or him gather evidence of white collar crime or fraud, document the evidence of the occurrence, and, perhaps, place that investigator on the witness stand for expert testimony in what ever legal proceedings come out of the process. The tools used by these investigators are primarily software tools, though there are a few hardware considerations as well.

The basic computer forensic toolkit will probably be contained on a CD or DVD and be presented primarily in a word processing format. Any computer forensic investigation produces a mammoth amount of paperwork, since the goal of the investigation is to document absolutely everything that is found. These toolkit CD’s are designed to supply the investigator with tried and true forms and templates that will allow to investigator to document everything that is found. They also serve as an effective check list to aid the investigation team in ensuring that no step is missed and that everything is done in the correct order.

Another major component of the toolkit will be templates and tools to assist in the presentation of the findings of the investigation to management. It is vital that all findings be reported in a manner that is professional, unbiased, complete, and scientifically sound. This is the end product of the investigation, and what management sees as being what they paid the investigators to actually do. This reporting may also end up being the basis (and exhibits) of the legal proceedings that may arise from the process, so it is vital that these reports and presentations be accurate, clear, and completely aligned with the law.

The main non software tool that is used in a computer forensic toolkit is an imaging device. Making an exact image of the hard drive (or other storage medium) of the computer is the most common first step in the capture of data. It is absolutely required that a “clean” copy of the computer’s memory and stored data be in place, so that the investigators are sure that they are looking at and analyzing the data in the same precise pattern in which it occurs on the computer in question. There are many brands of device available, and they all have the same basic function.

First, these devices must make an exact copy of the data. Secondly, the usually perform the copy at the sector level of the disk as a bit stream process (as opposed to a simple file copy process). This method makes a more complete and accurate copy of the data, which, in turn, allows for a more thorough and accurate analysis.